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Hadeeth

Usool al-Kaafi

The book of Intelligence and ignorance

H1, Ch. 1

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub has narrated from a number of our people of whom one is Muhammad ibn Yahya al-‘Attar who narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Hassan ibn Mahbub from 'Ala' ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu Ja’far (a.s) who has said the following.
" When Allah, God, created Intelligence He made it speak and then He said to it, ‘Come forward’.

It came forward. He then said, "Go back." It went back.

Then Allah said, "I swear by My honor and glory that I have not created any creature more beloved to Me than you. I will not perfect you in anyone except those whom I love. I, however, will command only you to do things and prohibit only you from doing certain things. I will grand blessings (rewards) to you only and will subject only you to punishments."

H1, Ch. 2

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad, from 'Amr ibn ‘Uthman, from Mufaddal ibn Salih from Sa‘d ibn Tarif from Asbagh ibn Nabatah, from Ali (a.s) who has said the following.

"Once Jibril came to Adam (a.s) and said, ‘I am ordered to offer you three choices. You may chose one and leave the other two. Adam then asked, "What are those three things?"

Gibril replied, ‘They are Intelligence, bashfulness and religion.’

Adam then said, "I chose Intelligence." Gibril then asked bashfulness and religion to return and leave Intelligence with Adam. They said to Gibril, ‘O Gibril, we are commanded to be with Intelligence wherever it may exist. Gibril then said, "It then is up to you." He then ascended to heavens.

H1, Ch. 3

Ahmad ibn 'Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar, from certain persons of our people in a Marfu’ manner, who have ascribed it to abu 'Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

The narrator has said, "I asked abu ‘Abdallah, "What is Intelligence?" He replied, ‘It is a fact with whose help one worships Allah, the Merciful, and attains paradise.’ I then asked, "What was the thing with Mu’awiyah?" ‘It was shrewdness. Mischief is similar to Intelligence but it is not Intelligence.’ The Imam replied.

H 1, Ch. 4

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Faddal from al-Hassan ibn al-Jahm who has said the following.

"I heard (Imam) al-Rida (a.s) saying, "The friend of a person is his/her Intelligence and the enemy of a person is his/her ignorance."

H 1, Ch. 5

It is narrated from him from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from al-Hassan ibn al-Juham who has said the following.

"I said to abu al-Hassan, "We know certain people who have a great deal of love but they don not have much determination (and understanding of the cause of Imamat)." The Imam replied, "They are not of the ones that Allah has admonished. What Allah has said is that people of Intelligence and understanding must take a lesson."

H 1, Ch. 6

Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn Hassa’n from abu Muhammad al-Razi from Sayf ibn ‘Umayra from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"One who has Intelligence he has a religion also and one who has religion he enters Paradise."

H 1, Ch. 7

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Yaqtin from Muhammad ibn Sinan ibn abu al-Jarud from abu Ja‘far (a.s) who has said the following.

"Allah, on the Day of Judgment, will hold everyone accountable according to the degree of the intelligence that He had given them in their worldly life."

H 1, Ch. 8

Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah has narrated from Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Ahmar from Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Daylami his father who has said the following.

"Once I mentioned a certain person’s intelligence, worship and religion before Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s). The Imam (a.s) asked, "How is his intelligence? The man replied, ‘I do not know.’ The Imam then said, "The degree of reward is based on the degree of intelligence. A man of Bani Israel worshipped Allah on an island in the ocean. The island was lush green, with many trees and abundant water. Once an angels passed by the worshipper and asked Allah to show how much reward and blessings would the worshipper receive for his good deeds. Allah showed the rewards due to the worshipper to the angel and the angel considered it very little. Allah then told the angel to stay with the worshipper as a companion. The angel then appeared to the worshipper in the form of a human being. The worshipper asked, "Who are you?" ‘ I have heard about your great worships and your spiritual position at this place and I wish to join you to worship Allah along with you." The angel said. He spent that day with the worshipper and the next day the angel said to the worshipper, "Your place is beautiful and it should only be used for worship." ‘Yes, it is but it has one shortcoming.’ The worshipper responded. "What is that?" The angel inquired. "Our Lord does not have an animal. I whish He had a donkey so that we would look after the donkey to graze all the grass around. All these grass is a waste." ‘Does your Lord have no donkey? Asked the angel. "Had our Lord had a donkey all this grass would not have turned into waste." The worshipper answered with sadness. Allah then revealed to the angel, "We reward everyone according to the degree of his/her intelligence."

H 1, Ch. 9

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfali from al-Sakuni from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"The holy Prophet said, "If you would hear good things about a man, you should examine how good his intelligence is, because he will be rewarded according to his intelligence."

H 1, Ch. 10

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan who has said the following.

"I mentioned a person, who would overdo the deeds of his doing Wudu and prayer to Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) and added that he is a man of good intelligence." The Imam (a.s) then said, ‘What kind of intelligence is it that allows him to obey Satan.’ I then asked the Imam, "How would he be considered as obeying Satan?" The Imam (a.s) said, "Ask him wherefrom this thing comes to him. He will certainly say, "It comes from Satan."

H 1, Ch. 11

A number of our people has narrated Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from certain persons of his people in a marfu‘ manner from the Holy Prophet (s.a) who has said the following.

"Allah has not distributed anything among people more excellent than intelligence. The sleeping of a person of intelligence is better than the worshipping of an ignorant person for the whole night. Staying of a person of intelligence at home is better than the journeying of an ignorant person in search for success and good deeds. Allah did not sent any prophet or messenger before the completion of his intelligence and to let it become better than the intelligence of all of his followers. Whatever a prophet preserves in his soul is better than the achievement of all the striving people for virtue and good deeds. People would not fulfil their obligations to Allah without having an understanding about Him. All the worshippers will not be able to achieve with the virtue of their worships what a person of intelligence achieves. It is the people of intelligence who are considered as people of proper understanding in chapter 2:269 of the holy Quran, "Only People of understanding realizes this."

H 1, Ch. 12

Abu ‘Abdallah al-Ash‘ari has narrated from certain persons of our people have narrated in a marfu‘ manner from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has said the following.

"Abu al-Hassan Musa ibn Ja’far stated the following to me. ‘O Hisham, Allah has given good news to the people of reason and understanding in His book in the following words, " Give the good news to those of My servants who hear certain words but follow only the good words. These are the ones whom Allah has given guidance and they are the people of understanding. 39:20 Holy Quran

"O Hisham, it is certain that Allah has established complete (legal) authority for people (to refer to) in the form of intelligence, supported the messengers through the (ability) to communicate and has guided them to His own Lordship with proofs. Saying, "Your Lord is the only Lord. There is no God but He, the Beneficent, the Merciful (2:163)

"(Of the signs of His existence are the creation of heavens and earth, the alternation of nights and days, the ships that sail in the sea for the benefit of the people. (Also of such signs are) the water that God sends from the sky to revive the dead earth where He has scattered all kinds of animals, the winds of all directions and the clouds that are rendered for service between the sky and the earth. Such are evidence (of His existence) for those who use their intelligence. (2:164)

"O Hisham, Allah has mentioned the above facts as proof of His existence and that such facts depend upon the will of one who has designed them saying:

"God has made the day and the night, the sun and the moon, and all the stars subservient to you by His command. In this there is evidence of the truth for people of understanding. (16:12)

"It is He, Who created you from clay, turning it into a living germ, then into a clot of blood, and then brings you forth as a child. He then made you grow into manhood and become old. He causes some of you to live for the appointed time and some of you to die before so that perhaps you may have understanding (40:67).

"In the heavens and the earth there is evidence (of the Truth) for the believers (45:3). In your creation and in that of the beasts living on earth there is evidence of the Truth for the people who have strong faith (45:4). In the alternation of the night and the day, the sustenance which God has sent down from the sky to revive the barren earth, and in the changing of the direction of the winds there is evidence of the truth for the people of understanding (45:5).

"Know that God brings the dead earth back to life. We have explained Our revelations to you so that you may perhaps have understanding (57:17).

"In the earth there are adjacent pieces of land, vineyards, farms, date-palms of single and many roots which are all watered by the same water. We have made some yield a better food than others. All this is evidence (of the existence of God) for the people who understand. (13:4)

"Also, of the evidence of His existence are His showing you lightening which gives you fear and hope and His sending water down from the sky which revives the earth after its death. In this there is evidence (of the truth) for the people of understanding. (30:24)

"(Muhammad), say, "Let me tell you about what your Lord has commanded: Do not consider anything equal to God; Be kind to your parents; Do not murder your children out of fear of poverty, for We give sustenance to you and to them. Do not even approach indecency either in public or in private. Take not a life, which God has made sacred except by way of justice and law. Thus does He command you that you may learn wisdom. (6:151)

"God has told you this parable about yourselves: Could your slaves share your wealth equally with you and could you fear them as you fear yourselves? Thus, do We clarify the evidence (of the truth) for the people of understanding (30:28).

"O Hisham, Allah then has given good advise to the people of intelligence and has encouraged them to become interested in the life to come saying, "The worldly life is but useless amusement and sport (compared to) the life hereafter which is far better and is only for the pious. Will you not then understand? (6:32)

"O Hisham, Allah then has given warnings to those who do not think about the punishment that may come upon them from Allah saying, "Then We totally destroyed the others (37:136). You pass by (their ruined town) in the morning and at night (37:137). Will you then not understand? (37:138)

"We will bring torment from the sky on this town because of the evil-deeds of its inhabitants" (29:34). We left manifest evidence (of the truth) there for the people of understanding. (29:35)

"O Hisham, intelligence comes with knowledge." Allah has said, "These are parables which, We tell to human beings, but only the learned ones understand them. (29:43)

"O Hisham, Allah has then expressed dislike towards those who do not understand in the following words: "When certain people are asked to follow the revelations of God, they say, ‘We would rather follow what our fathers have followed,’ even though their fathers had no understanding and could not find the true guidance (2:170)

"Preaching to unbelievers is like talking to someone who cannot hear anything except yells and shouts. They are deaf, dumb, and blind; they have no understanding. (2:171)

"Some of them will look at you, but are you supposed to guide the blind even if they have no vision? (10:43)

"Do you think that most of them listen and understand? They are like cattle or even more, straying and confused. (25:44)

"They will not fight you united except with the protection of fortified towns or from behind walls. They are strong among themselves. You think that they are united, but in fact, their hearts are divided. They are a people who have no understanding (59:14)

"Would you order people to do good deeds and forget to do them yourselves even though you read the Book? Why do you not think?" (2:44)

"O Hisham, Allah then has expressed dislike towards the multitudes saying, "Most of the people in the land will lead you away from God's guidance if you follow them; they only follow their own conjecture and preach falsehood (6:116)

"If you ask them, "Who has created the heavens and the earth," they will certainly say, "God has created them." Say, "It is only God who deserves all praise, but most of them do not know" (31:25)

"If you ask them, "Who has sent down water from the sky to revive the dead earth?" They will say, "God has done it." Say, "It is only God who deserves all praise, but many of them do not understand." (29:63)

"O Hisham, Allah then has praised those fewer in numbers saying, "Only few of my servants are grateful." (34:13)

He has said, "How few are they?"

"A believing person from the people of the Pharaoh who concealed his faith said, "Would you kill a man just because he says God is my Lord?" (40:28)

"No one believed in him, except a few. (11:40)

Tell them, (Muhammad), "God certainly has the Power to show such miracles but many of them are ignorant." (6:37).

"Many of them have no understanding. (5:103)

Many of them do not realize."

"O Hisham, Allah has mentioned the people of intelligence in the best manners with the best of characteristics saying, "God gives wisdom to the ones whom He wants. Whoever is given wisdom, has, certainly, received much good. Only people of intelligence can grasp this (2:269).

" . . . those who have a firm grounding in knowledge say, "We believe in it. All its verses are from our Lord." No one can grasp this fact except the people of Intelligence . . ." (3:7)

"The creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the day and the night are evidence (of the existence of God) for people of Intelligence. (3:190)

"Can a person, who knows that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, be considered equal to a blind person? Only those who have understanding take heed (13:19).

"Can this one be considered equal to one who worships God during the night, prostrating and standing, who has fear of the Day of Judgment, and who has hope in the mercy of his Lord? Say, "Are those who know equal to those who do not know? Only the people of Intelligence take heed" (39:9).

"It is a blessed Book which We have revealed for you so that you will reflect upon its verses and so the people of understanding will take heed (38:29).

"To Moses We had given guidance and to the children of Israel We had given the Book (40:53) as their inheritance and as a guide and a reminder to the people of understanding (40:54)

"Keep on reminding them. This benefits the believers" (51:55).

"O Hisham, Allah says in His book, "This is a reminder for the ones who understands, listens, and sees." (50:37)

It means intelligence.

"We gave wisdom to Luqman so that he would give thanks to God . . . ." (31:12) Understand is intelligence.

"O Hisham, Luqman said to his son, " Venerate the truth you will be the most intelligent among man. Cleverness before intelligence has a very small value. My son, the world is a very deep ocean in which many people have drowned. You must take piety before God as the ship, faith as supplies therein, trust in God as the sales, intelligence as the captain, knowledge as the guide and patience as passengers."

"O Hisham, for everything there is a guide. The guide for intelligence is thinking. The guide for thinking is silence. For everything there is a means for mobility the means of mobility for intelligence is humble attitude. To disobey a prohibition is enough proof of ones ignorance.

"O Hisham, Allah send His messengers to people for no other reason but that they would have understanding about Him. Those who obey Him better have better understanding about Him. Those who are more knowledgeable in the commandment of Allah are the ones who have more powerful intelligence and those who have more powerful intelligence are at a higher degree of excellence in this world and in the next life.

"O Hisham, Allah has placed two kinds of authority over man.

1

The apparent and manifest authority and the internal and hidden authority The prophets and messengers are the apparent and manifest authorities and intelligence is the hidden and internal authority.

"O Hisham, a man of intelligence is one whose thankfulness doe not diminish because of a large wealth and prohibited matters can not overpower his patience.

"O Hisham, one who would support three things against an other three kinds of things he would be leading to the destruction of his own intelligence.

(1) Darkening of one’s ability to think with day dreaming, (2) the abolishment of the sparks of one’s wisdom with excessive bluffs and (3) the extinguishing of the lights of the lessons from experience by the desires of one’s soul.

It would be like supporting ones desire to destroy ones own intelligence. One who would destroy his own intelligence he has destroyed his own worldly life as well as the life to come.

"O Hisham how would you expect to have pure deeds before Allah when you have such things that keep you away from the facts that matter to Allah, your Lord, and you have obeyed your desires against your own intelligence.

"O Hisham, maintaining patience in loneliness is a sign of the strength of intelligence. One who has understanding about Allah he keeps himself aside from the people of this world and those interested in it. He becomes interested in what is with Allah. Allah then gives him comfort in his fear and company when he is lonely. Allah gives him riches in his poverty and honor without the existence of his tribesmen.

"O Hisham, truth is set up so that Allah is obeyed. There is no salvation without obedience to Allah. Obedience comes only from knowledge, which comes from learning that receives strength from intelligence. The only knowledge of value is that of one who knows about the Lord and intelligence discerns the valuable of knowledge.

"O Hisham, smaller degrees of deeds with knowledge are accepted with double value and large amounts of deeds from those who follow their desires and ignorance are rejected.

"O Hisham, a person of intelligence is pleased with little things of the world with wisdom but he does not agree with a little wisdom with all of the world and, thus, such people strike a gainful bargain.

"O Hisham, the people of intelligence stay away from what is more than the basic necessities of life how then they would not stay away from the sins in this world. To stay away from what is more than the bare necessities is only extra virtue but staying away from sins is obligatory.

"O Hisham, a man of intelligence observes the world and the people of the world and finds out that the worldly gains come only through hard works and labor. He finds out that gains of the life hereafter also come through hard work and labor he then accepts the one that is more durable.

"O Hisham, people of intelligence hold themselves back from the worldly things and strengthen interest in the gains of the life hereafter. They have learned that the worldly gains are sought after and are wanted and so also are the gains of the lifer hereafter. One who seeks the gains of the life hereafter the world will seek him to deliver to him his livelihood but one who seeks the worldly gains the hereafter would also seek to find him. Death will then approach him and it will destroy his world and leave him with no opportunity in the life hereafter (because he had gained nothing).

"O Hisham, one who wants self-sufficiency without property, comfort for his heart from the evil of jealousy and the safety of his religion he should pray to Allah, the Most Glorious, to perfect his intelligence. The person of intelligence is satisfied with the basic necessities and one who agrees with basic necessities he is self-sufficient and free of needs and one who is not satisfied with basic necessities he is never free from wants.

"O Hisham, Allah has stated the following on behalf of the people of virtue, "They say, "Lord, do not cause our hearts to deviate from Your guidance, and grant us mercy. You are the Most Awarding One." (3:8) They know that hearts may deviate and turn towards blindness and destruction.

It is certain that those who do not fear Allah have no understanding about Him. One who does not have proper understanding about Allah one’s heart does not establish any stable gnosis about Allah with clear awareness of such gnosis that one would find in his heart. No one can be as such except those whose deeds would confirm their words and their privacy would agree with their public activities. This is because Allah, Sacrosanct are whose names, has not shown what is private and unknown form intelligence except through what is public from it and speaks for it.

"O Hisham, the commander of the true believers, Imam Ali (a.s) has said, "Allah is worshipped better by no means other than intelligence. No one’s intelligence reaches perfection until therewith is found various qualities. Disbelief and evil should not emerge therefrom. Wisdom and goodness should be expected to exist therewith. The extra of the property of a person of intelligence is given in charity, the extra of his words is restrained and his share of the worldly things is only the basic necessities. He never considers himself as to have learned enough. To be with Allah, although in a very humble state, is far better to him than to live very much honored with others. Humbleness is more beloved to him than being taken as a dignitary. He considers virtuous deeds of others a great deal and his own virtuous deeds as insignificant. He considers all the other people better than his self and his own self as the worse of all and this is the totality of all things."

"O Hisham, a man of intelligence never speaks a lie even though it may satisfy his desires."

"O Hisham, one who does not maintain honorable kindness he has no religion and one can not have such noble character without intelligence. A person of the greatest value among people is one who does not consider the worldly gains his fortune. Nothing can become an adequate price for your bodies other than paradise. Do not sell it for any thing other than paradise.

"O Hisham, the commander of the true believers, Imam Ali (a.s) has said, "Three noble qualities in man are of the signs of the existence of intelligence. He replies when questioned and he speaks up only when everyone else fails to speak and offers his advise when it is beneficial to his people. One who has none of these qualities is a fool." He also has said, "No one other a person who has all of the above or some of such qualities should chair a gathering and if one does so without any of such qualities he is a fool."

Imam Hassan ibn Ali (a.s) has said, "If you would ask for help do so from a proper source." He was asked, "O grandson of the holy Prophet, ‘Who are the proper sources?" He replied, "They are those about whom Allah has spoken in His book saying, "Only those who have understanding will take heed and they are the people of intelligence."

Imam Ali ibn al-Husayn (a.s) has said, "Sitting in the company of virtuous people leads one to virtue and association with the scholars is a means of strengthening one’s intelligence. Obedience to the authorities that practice justice is an honor. The investment of wealth for profit is a dignifying practice. Guiding one who asks for guidance is an expression of gratitude. To restrain ones harmful manners and deeds is because of the perfection of one’s intelligence in which there is comfort for the body in the short and long terms."

"O Hisham, a man of intelligence does not speak to one who is feared to call him a liar. He does not ask those that he fears may deny him. He does not count on what is not within his abilities. He does not maintain any hope in that which may involve severity and harshness. He does not take any steps towards which he fears may not be achieved due to his inability."

H 1, Ch. 13

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad in a marfu‘ manner Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s) who has said the following.

"Intelligence is a complete cover (protection) for one and extra knowledge and skills are evident beauty. Compensate your physical shortcomings with your extra knowledge and skills. Fight your desires with help from your intelligence and in so doing friendship is surrendered to and love becomes manifest for you."

H 1, Ch. 14

"With a gathering of his followers I was in the presence of Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s). A discussion on intelligence and ignorance began to emerge among them. Thereupon Imam abu ‘Abdallah said, "You, first, must recognize intelligence and its army and ignorance and its army only then you would find proper guidance." I then asked, may Allah make my soul of service to you, we only learn what you teach us." The Imam (a.s) said, "Allah, the Glorious, the Majestic created intelligence and it was the first creature of spiritual world on the right side of the Throne from His light. He then told him to move backwards and intelligence moved backwards. He then told him to come forwards. Intelligence came forwards. Allah, the Sacrosanct, the Most High said, "I have created you a great creature and honored you above all others of my creatures. The Imam (a.s) continued, "Allah then created ignorance from a salty dark ocean and told it, "move backwards and did move backwards. He then called it to come forwards but it did not come forwards. He then said to it, ‘Did you shun coming forwards?" He then pronounced it condemned. He then assigned seventy-five armies for intelligence. When ignorance saw all the honors Allah has granted to intelligence it bore hidden animosity towards intelligence and said, "Lord this creature is just like me. You created and honored it and gave it power. But I have no power against it. Give me also likewise armies. The Lord then said, "I will give you also an army but if you would disobey Me I will then expel you and your army from My mercy. Ignorance then said, ‘I agree.’ Allah gave it seventy-five armies and it was out of the army of intelligence.

 

The Army of Intelligence

The Army of Ignorance

1 Goodness is the minister of Intelligence

Evil is the minister of Ignorance

2 Faith

Disbelief

3 Professing

Refusal

4 Hope

Despair

5 Justice

Injustice

6 Consent

Disapproval

7 Thankfulness

Ungratefulness

8 Expectation

Hopelessness

9 Reliance

Greed

10 Soft-heartedness

Hard-heartedness

11 Mercy

Anger

12 Knowledge

Ignorance

13 Understanding

Foolishness

14 Chastity

Reckless

15 Restraint

Yearning

16 Relenting

Relentless

17 Cautious

Boldness

18 Humbleness

Arrogance

19 Relax

Haste

20 Forbearance

Silliness

21 Quietness

Bluffing

22 Peacefulness

Contempt

23 Acceptance

Doubt

24 Patience

Impatience

25 Forgiving

Revenge

26 Self-reliance

Poverty

27 Remembrance

Forgetfulness

28 Sympathy

Detachment

29 Self-content

Covetousness

30 Munificent

Avaricious

31 Affection

Animosity

32 Loyalty

Infidelity

33 Obedience

Disobedience

34 Subservience

Supremacy

35 Security

Affliction

36 Love

Hatred

37 Truthfulness

Duplicity

38 Truth

Falsehood

39 Trustworthiness

Treachery

40 Sincerity

Distortion

41 Sharp witted

Feeble-mindedness

42 Comprehension

Simple-mindedness

43 Cognizance

Refusal

44 Safekeeping

feel evil satisfaction

45 Security unseen

Intemperance

46 Protective

Unmasking

47 Prayer

Loosing

48 Fasting

Consuming food

49 Hard work

Passivity

50 Hajj

Disregard of covenant

51 Soundness of words

Scandalous

52 Kindness to parents

Rudeness to parents

53 Factual

Braggart

54 Legitimate

Wickedness

55 Guarded

Bedecked

56 Concealment

Hatching

57 Fairness

Taking-sides

58 Peaceable

Rebelliousness

59 Cleanliness

Filthiness

60 Bashfulness

Ill-mannered

61 Impartiality

Aggressive

62 Comfort

Exhaustion

63 Ease

Hardships

64 Blessedness

Lack of blessings

65 Tranquility

Suffering

66 Stability

Aggrandizing

67 Wisdom

Desires

68 Dignity

Meanness

69 Fortunateness

Unfortunateliness

70 Repentance

Persistence

71 Seeking forgiveness

Keeping pride

72 Conservitiveness

Heedlessness

73 Invoking

Withholding

74 Vitality

Lethargic

75 Happiness

Sorrow

Friendliness

Aversion

Generosity

Stinginess

 


No one other than a prophet or his successor or a true believer the strength of whose faith Allah has already tested can have the whole army of intelligence with all such characteristics. However, some of our followers and friends may acquire some of such characteristics so that they may reach perfection and repulse the army of ignorance and purify themselves from evil. In such case they also will step at the high degree and level of the prophets and the successors of the prophets. This progress can only be made after knowing, with certainty, intelligence and its army and ignorance and its army. May Allah provide us and you the opportunity to obey Him and work to please Him.

H 1, Ch. 15

A group of our people has narrted from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Faddal from certain persons of our people from abu ‘Abdallah who has said the following.

"The holy Prophet never spoke to people from the height and with the full power of his intelligence. The holy Prophet (s.a.) has said, "We the community of the Prophets are commanded to speak to people up to the level of their intelligence and understanding."

H 1, Ch. 16

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Nawfali from al-Sakuni from Ja‘far from his father from Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s) who has said the following. Imam abu Ja’far has narrated from Imam Ali (a.s) who has said the following.

"Greed motivates the hearts of the ignorant people, longings and yearning keep them as hostages and deceit clings to them."

H 1, Ch. 17

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ja‘far ibn Muhammad al-Ash‘ari from ‘Ubaydallah al-Dihqan from Durust from Ibrahim ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid from abu ‘Abdallah who has said the following.

"The most perfect of intelligence are those who are the best in moral discipline."

H 1, Ch. 18

Ali has narrated from his father from abu Hashim al-Ja‘fari who has said the following.

"We were in the presence of Imam al-Rida (a.s) that a discussion about intelligence took place and the Imam said, "O abu Hashim, intelligence is a present from Allah but discipline is a skill and burden. One who would pretend as a well disciplined one he would certainly establish full control in it. But to pretend as a person of intelligence would increase in him nothing but more ignorance."

H 1, Ch. 19

Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Yahya ibn al-Mubarak from ‘Abdallah ibn Jubla from ibn Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"I asked Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) this, ‘May Allah take my soul in service for your cause, I have a neighbor who prays a great deal, gives much charity and very often visits Makka and he seems alright.’" The Imam (a.s) asked, "O ibn Ishaq how is his intelligence?" I then said, "May Allah take my soul in service for your cause, he does not have any intelligence" "Nothing from what he does will be raised up (to heavens)." Replied the Imam.

H 1, Ch. 20

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Sayyari from abu Ya’qub al-Baghdadi who has said the following.
"Ibn Sukayt asked Imam abu al-Hassan (a.s), ‘Why did Allah sent Moses with the miracle appearing through his staff and through his hand and means of magic, Jesus with means of medical tasks and Prophet Muhammad (may Allah send blessings upon him, his family and all the prophets) with means of speech and sermons?’"

"When Moses was sent magic was very popular among the people. He showed a magic of such form that was not possible for others to perform. He was given such means that destroyed the magical effects of those people’s magic and established the truth of the message of Allah among them. Allah sent Jesus at a time when serious illnesses existed among the people and they needed medical treatment. Jesus brought from Allah what the people did not have. He brought from Allah the means to bring the dead back to life, cure the sick and the lepers by the permission of Allah and thus, establish the truthfulness of the message of Allah among the people." The Imam explained.

Allah sent Prophet Muhammad (s.a.) at a time when oratory and speech was very popular among the people –I think he said poetry. He brought from Allah to the people the good advise and wisdom that showed the falsehood in their speeches and thus established the truthfulness of the message of Allah among them." Ibn al-Sukayt then said, "I swear by Allah that I have never seen anyone like you. What is the proof to establish the truthfulness of the message of Allah among people today?" The Imam then said, ‘It is intelligence. Through intelligence one recognizes those who speak the truth from Allah, thus, one acknowledges their truthfulness and those who lie in the name of Allah their lies come to light." Ibn al-Sukayt then said, "This by Allah is the answer."

H 1, Ch. 21

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from al-Muthanna al-Hannat from al-Qutayba al-A 'sha’ from ibn abu Ya‘fur from a slave of clan of Shayban from abu Ja‘far (a.s) who has said the following.

"When al-Qa’im, (the one who will rise with Divine Authority) the guardian, of our family will appear from occultation, Allah will place His hand over the heads of His servants and, thus, He place their intelligence together and complete their understanding."

H 1, Ch. 22

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn Sulayman from Ali ibn Ibrahim from ‘Abdallah ibn Sinan from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"The authority of Allah over the people is the Prophet (s.a.) and the authority between Allah and the people is intelligence."

H 1, Ch. 23

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad in a mursal manner from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"Intelligence is the support for man. From intelligence come intelligence, understanding, memorization and knowledge and with intelligence he gains perfection. Intelligence is his guide, his instructor and the key to his affairs. When his intelligence is supported with light he becomes a scholar, a keeper (of knowledge), an intelligent re-caller and a man of understanding. Through intelligence he learns the answer to how, why and where or when. He learns who helps and who harm him. When he learns these (facts) he learns the channels, the connections and the differentiating factors. He then establishes pure faith in the oneness of Allah and acknowledges the need to obey Him. When he does so he finds the proper remedy for what he has lost and the right approach to whatever may come in. He knows well his present involvement, for what reason is he here, wherefrom has he come and to what end is he going. He will have all these because of intelligence."

H 1, Ch. 24

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ’Isma‘il ibn Mihran from certain persons of his people from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"Intelligence is the guide of a true believer."

H 1, Ch. 25

Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla ibn Muhammad from al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from al-Sariy ibn Khalid from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

" The Messenger of Allah said, ‘O Ali, no poverty is more sever than ignorance and no property is more profitable than intelligence."

H 1, Ch. 26

Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn abu Najran from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu Ja‘far (a.s) who has said the following.

" When Allah, God, created intelligence He said to it, ‘Come forward’. It came forward. He then said, "Go back." It went back. Then Allah said, "I swear by My honor and glory that I have not created any creature more beautiful than you. I will command only you to do certain things and prohibit only you from doing certain things. I will grant blessings (rewards) to you only and will subject only you to punishments."

H 1, Ch. 27

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Haytham ibn abu Masruq al-Nahdi from al-Husayn ibn Khalid from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following.

"I said to abu ‘Abdallah (a.s), "A man comes to me and as soon as I speak to him only a part of what I want to say he understands it all. There are also people who come to me and I speak to them all that I want to speak and only then they understand all of my statements. And explain to me what I meant. There are still others to whom I speak at length but they ask me to repeat to them what I have already expressed to them." The Imam (a.s) then said, "O Ishaq, do you know why is this?" I replied, " No, I do not know." The Imam then said the following, "Those to whom you speak only some of what you want say and they understand the rest are those whose intelligence is mixed to take shape with his nature (Nutfa). Those who understand you only when you complete your speech are those whose intelligence is mixed with them in the womb of their mothers. Those who ask you to repeat what you already said are those, whose intelligence is combined with them when they grow up. It is such people who ask you to repeat your statement."

H 1, Ch. 28

A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from certain persons of our people in a marfu‘ manner from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"The Holy Prophet (s.a) has said, ‘When you find a man who prays and fasts a great deal do not become proud of him until you see how his intelligence is."

H 1, Ch. 29

Certain persons of our people has narrated in a marfu’ manner from Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

" O Mufaddal one can never gain success until he understands and one can never understand until he acquires knowledge. One who understands can very soon excel. One who exercises patience can very soon triumph. Knowledge serves one as a shield, truth is honor, ignorance is humility, sharp wittedness is glory, generosity is success and ethical excellence attracts friendship. One who possesses the know how of his time confusion does not frustrate him. Strong determination creates pessimism…. Allah is the guardian of those who know Him. He is the enemy of those who pretend to know Him. A person of intelligence is forgiving and an ignorant person is treacherous. If you like to be honored you must become kind hearted and if you like to be insulted become harsh. One whose origin is noble he is kind hearted. One whose element is rough his liver is thick. The extremist falls into crisis. One who is afraid of the consequences desists from involvement in what he has no knowledge of. One who engages in an affair without knowing anything about it he is headed to his own loss. One who does not know he does not understand and one who does not understand he does not agree and become peaceful. One who does not agree and submit he is not respected and one who is not respected is broke and one who is so broke is blamable and one who is in such a condition must become regretful for his own self.

H 1, Ch. 30

Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from in a marfu‘ manner from Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s) who has said the following.

"If one would establish firmly in himself one good quality for me I will credit him for it and forgive his other shortcomings but I will not forgive him for his losing intelligence and religion because departing religion is departing peace and security. Thus, life with fear and insecurity is unpleasant. Loss of intelligence is loss of life. A person without intelligence can be compared with no other thing but the dead."

H 1, Ch. 31

Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim has narrated from Musa ibn Ibrahim from al-Muharibi from al-Hassan ibn Musa from Musa ibn ‘Abdallah from Maymun ibn Ali from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (a.s) has said, ‘Self glorification is an indication of the weakness of one’s intelligence.’"

H 1, Ch. 32

Abu ‘Abdallah al-‘Asimiy has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hassan from Ali ibn Asbat from al-Hassan ibn al-Juham from abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s) who has said the following.

"Our people mentioned intelligence and spoke about it in the presence of the Imam al-Rida (a.s), and he said, ‘Of the religious people those who have no intelligence deserves no credit.’ I then asked, "May Allah take my soul in your service, of such people we know a group who are considered alright in our opinion but they do not have such intelligence." The Imam then said, ‘They are not of the people whom Allah has addressed when He created intelligence and said to it, ‘Come forward’. It came forward. He then said, "Go back." It went back. Then Allah said, "I swear by My honor and glory that I have not created anything better and more beloved to Me than you. I will grant blessings (rewards) to you only and will subject only you to punishments."

H 1, Ch. 33

Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from certain persons of our people from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"There is nothing else to distinguish belief from disbelief but lack of intelligence. People asked the Imam, "How is that, O great-great-great-great grandson of the holy Prophet." The Imam replied, ‘Human beings center their expectations on other creatures. If they would become sincere to Allah He will grant their wish and expectations much quicker.’"

H 1, Ch. 34

A number of our people has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ‘Ubaydallah al-Dihqan from Ahmad ibn ‘Umar al-Halabi from Yahya ibn ‘Umran from abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who has said the following.

"Through intelligence the depths of wisdom is discovered and with wisdom the depths of intelligence is discovered. Good policies are of the virtuous moral discipline." He said that Imam Ali (a.s) used to say, ‘Thinking is life for the intelligent heart just as light helps one to walk in darkness with ease and without waiting for a long time."

(a) It is narrated from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) in a long narration, "The first, the beginning, the force and the structure of something is that without which something would be of no benefit. The thing that Allah has made beauty and light for His creatures, the people, is intelligence. With intelligence people come to know their creator and that they are created and that He is the one who has designed them and they are the ones who are being maintained. That it is the creator that is eternal and it is the creatures that are mortals. It is intelligence with which they reason from His creatures, like the heavens, the earth, and the sun the moon, night, the day. In this way they learned that they and the creatures have a creator and maintainer who is eternal. With intelligence they learn about good and bad and that darkness is in ignorance and light is in knowledge. These are facts that they learn with intelligence."

People asked the Imam (a.s), "Can intelligence only be enough for people?" The Imam (a.s) then replied, ‘With guidance from intelligence that Allah has made him to depend on and it is, his beauty and guide, a person of intelligence learns that Allah is his creator and that He is his Lord. Through intelligence one learns that his creator loves and that He dislikes certain things, that the Lord must be obeyed and that certain acts are disobedience to Him and that nothing but intelligence shows him all these facts. One also (with intelligence) learns that only with knowledge and searching one may reach the Creator. That one may not benefit from his intelligence if he can not learn the truth about Him through his knowledge. It then is necessary for a person of intelligence to acquire knowledge and proper moral discipline without which there is nothing else so dependable."

(b) It is narrated from Imam abu ‘Abdallah (a.s) who said, "No wealth is more profitable and no poverty is more crashing than foolishness and no effort of seeking support is more supportive than seeking consultation."

End of the book of Intelligence and Ignorance.

All praise belongs to Allah May Allah send peace and blessings upon Muhammad and his holy family.

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